Jul 10, 2009 Grammar 3244 Views
For learning English Grammar, this site will be most helpful at upper middle and middle levels (where almost all of the objects will be important), and can provide both as a foundation for reviewing new structures. It might also be helpful for some advanced learners who have troubles with English Grammar and require something for reference. This site is proposed to be utilized by fundamental learners as well.
The elements are not prepared according to difficulty, so this site needs not to be worked through from starting to end. It can be used flexibly and selectively according to the English Grammar curriculum being used as well as the difficulties learners are having in English Grammar.
Compare----If I do… and if I did
Compare these examples:
1. Ann has lost her watch. She thinks it may be at Salma’s house.
· Ann: I think I left my watch at your house. Have you seen it?
· Salma: No, but I’ll have a book when I get home. If I find it, I’ll tell you.
In this example, Salma feels there is a real possibility that she will find the watch. So she says: If I find…, I’ll…
2. Salma says: If I found a English Grammar book in the street, I would take it to the library.
This is a different type of situation. Here, Salma is not thinking about a real possibility; she is imagining the situation and doesn’t expect to find a English Grammar book in the street. So she says: if I found…, I would… (not ‘if I find…,I’ll…,).
Use of----Used to
Let’s see the example situation:
Jony stopped reading English Grammar three years ago. He doesn’t read English Grammar any more.
But he used to read English Grammar.
“He used to read English Grammar” = he read English Grammar regularly for some time in the past, but he doesn’t read now.
Something used to happen = something happened regularly in the past but no longer happens:
· I used to go abroad a lot but I don’t go very often now.
· She used to travel a lot. These days she doesn’t go away very often.
Don’t confuse I used to do and I am used to doing. The structures and meanings are different:
I used to smoke = I smoked in the past but I no longer smoke.
I am used to smoking = I smoke and I don’t find it strange or new because I have been smoking for sometime.
Know about----Present continuous tense (I am going) for the future
Present continuous (I am going) with a future meaning
Let’s see this example situation
Jony has decided that he is going to do these things below:
· He is playing cricket on Sunday morning
· He is having breakfast with Monir on Monday
· He is going teach English Grammar on Sunday.
In all these examples, Jony has already decided and arranged to do these things.
It means we can use the present continuous to say what we have already arranged to do. Don’t use the present simple.
One more example:
What are you doing on Sunday morning? (not ‘what do you do’)
Know about----May and might
Usually it doesn’t matter whether you use may or might. So you can say:
· He may go to England. Or he might go to England.
· She may be able to go with you to English Grammar class. Or she might be able to go with you to English Grammar class.
But we use only might (not may) when the situation is not real:
· If I new him better, I might invite him to lunch. (not “may invite him”)
The situation here is not real because I don’t know him very well, so I’m not going to invite them. May is not possible in this example.
Know about----Must and have to
We use must and have to to say that it is necessary to do something. But there is a difference between must and have to and sometimes this is important:
Must is personal. We use must when we give our personal feelings.
“You must know English Grammar” = ‘I (the speaker) say it is necessary’:
· She is a really nice girl. You must see her.
· Jony hasn’t phoned me for ages. I must phone him tonight.
Have to impersonal. We use have to for facts, not for our personal feelings.
‘You have to do something’ because of a rule or the situation:
· We can’t turn right here. We have to turn left. (because of the traffic system)
· She can’t come out with me this evening. She has to work.
Use of----Had better
I had better go = it is advisable to go. If I don’t, there will be a problem or a danger:
· I have to meet Jony in 5 minutes. I had better go now or I will be late.
· Shall I take an umbrella? Yes, you had better. It might rain.
The negative is I had better not:
· Are you going out tonight? I had better not. I have got a lot of work to do.
You can use had better when you warn somebody that they must do something:
· You had better know English Grammar very well. (or I will be very angry)
Use of----Would rather
After would rather we have to use the infinitive without to:
· Shall we go by train? ‘I would rather go by car’ (not ‘to go’)
The negative is ‘I’d rather not (do something)’:
I’m tired. I’d rather not go out this evening, if you don’t mind.
I would rather you did something
When you want somebody to do something, you can say ‘I’d rather you did something’:
‘Shall I stay here?’ ‘I’d rather you came with us.’
‘Shall I tell them the news?’ ‘No. I’d rather they didn’t know.’
In this structure we use the past (came, did etc.), but the meaning is present or future, not past.
· I would rather cook the dinner now.
· But- I would rather you cooked the dinner now. (not ‘I’d rather you cook’)
The negative is ‘I’d rather you didn’t…’:
· I’d rather you didn’t tell anyone what I said about English Grammar.
· ‘Do you mind if I smoke?’ ‘I’d rather you didn’t.