History of Education, Teacher Training, Teachers, Teaching
Aug 31, 2008 Teacher Training 4026 Views
A Concise History of Education of Teachers, of Teacher Training and Teaching
(Based on author’s site www.geocities.com/histedu)
In western countries the history of teacher training and education, theories of teaching and education of teachers, in western countries, began in the first decade of the 18th century in Germany, with teaching seminaries preparing teachers to teach. In the history of education and teaching this was the first formal teacher training.
The first teacher training college in the history of education and the history of teaching of western countries, formal teacher education and training, was founded in early 18th century in France by the Roman Catholic monk Jean Babtiste de la Salle, canonised in 1900; his Brothers of the Christian schools were teaching poor and middle class children and were an order of non-clerical male teachers. This was based on what Greek philosophers had advocated and was later re-introduced into western society by Islam: that spirituality ought not be the only reason and basis of education. Until then, teacher education and training had been clerical; this, in 1725 was the first secular teacher training college in the history of education of the West.
In western countries' history of education this changed attitudes to education; teaching, and teacher education and training so began to require teachers to have an understanding of the human mind, together with knowledge of science and art and principles of teaching, and methods of teaching and education.
This requirement became established as the norm. Teacher training establishments conformed to it, with the Normal Schools, the first in the history of education for the training of teachers.
This proved popular; progress followed. This was the first time when in the history of education and history of teaching of western countries a system of education was created which required and enabled knowledge and in-service experience and certification for teachers, with continuing professional development opportunities in professional teaching for teachers. It was an un-uniform system of teacher education and training, but it did enabled teachers, while teaching, to attend teaching seminars to refresh and increase their knowledge of teaching; it made possible the exchange of ideas among teachers.
Uniform teacher education and training, professional teaching in the history of education first began in France. It was unsuccessfully attempted during the French revolution to adopt Germany's teachers' seminars, and with Napoleon's efforts in the second quarter of the 19th century a similar and the first uniform system in the western history of education and training of teachers became established.
In the USA and in Britain there had not been a system of formal teacher education and training; but, a certification for teachers, of moral fitness for teaching, had been introduced by Elizabeth I.
In England's history of education and teaching, in the first quarter of the 19th century a teaching method was begun by Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell. It was called 'Lancasterian': the senior students as 'monitors', while receiving teaching from a tutor, were acting as teachers and teaching other students.
In Scotland's history of education and teaching Germany's teacher education became interested in. In the third quarter of 19th century the Glasgow Normal Seminary for teachers was founded by David Stowe.
Teacher education and training progressed. In the USA Horace Mann founded the Massachusetts Normal Schools, and in Britain's colonies voluntary organisations and churches established formal teacher training colleges and teaching.
Concerns were expressed in England on whether it was right for persons of lower social class to attend teacher training colleges and give teaching to children of persons of higher social class. In France it was feared that teachers by their teaching might influence young minds with liberal ideas.
(In Japan [seemingly influencing the USA's history of education and teaching] emphasis in teaching was on instilling patriotism.)
In the history of teacher education and training of Europe, in 19th century 'Philosophy of Education' of Rosencrantz emphasized philosophical and psychological data. This was on the lines of Islam's system of university faculties and developed into separate teaching disciplines.
This progress in the history of education and teaching was furthered in Sweden by Pestalozzi. He advocated formal teacher training colleges.
(Pestalozzi, except theologically, was self-educated; he never specifically set out a written account of teaching and of teacher training colleges, but his place in the history of education and teaching and his greatness is deducible in outline from his various writings and his loving and sincere deeds and the example he set.)
Froebel in Germany favoured the education of teachers through teacher training colleges, as did Alexander Bain's 'Education as a Science'. That developed with Herbart's pedagogical emphasis in teaching on the five formal steps: preparation, presentation, comparison, generalisation, application.
Germany's model for teacher training and education became the basis of further developments: Derwent Coleridge and James Kay Shuttleworth in Britain, Mann in the USA broadly agreeing, favoured it. Teacher education and training, should emphasise techniques of teaching -"not only the subjects of instructions, but also the method of teaching".
By the end of the 19th century teacher education and training became established in France and Russia (and in Japan). Teacher education and training came to be required by law to be through formal teacher training colleges.
In English speaking countries history of education and teaching, formal teacher education and training, began in Scotland with the University of Edinburgh's creation of a chair in education, with the St. Andrews. The USA with the efforts of, e.g., Henry Bernard and Nicholas Murray Butler, followed.
Developments in English speaking countries were enhanced by the teaching techniques of Herbert Spencer in England, and pedagogy. In the USA's history of Teacher education and training there were studies, e.g., by Francis W. Parker, of Germany's pedagogical developments.
In the USA's history of teaching and education John Dewey worked with the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools as influenced by the Darwinian hypothesis (reportedly originating from the library of Alexandria) prior to its later evaluation by science. Taking into account from other disciplines what was considered relevant in teaching to child development, the Brown University founded a department of education.
The Roman Catholic La Salle College in Philadelphia, chartered 1863, had been teaching education.
The Teachers College founded in 1888 in New York was popularly incorporated into the Columbia University and was famously established that teacher training college at beginning of 20th century, announcing "The purpose of the Teacher Training College is to afford opportunity, both theoretical and practical, for the training of teachers, of both sexes, for kindergartens and elementary schools and secondary schools, of principals, supervisors, and superintendents of schools, and of specialists in various branches of school work, involving normal schools and colleges" -that became the basis, in the western history of education and teaching, of teacher education and training.
In Britain's system of education, which applied throughout the Commonwealth, entry into teacher training came to require senior secondary school, advanced level, Matriculation or the later General Certificate of Education [GCE] passes Ordinary [O] and at Advanced [A] level –more generally catered for at British Grammar Schools [as distinct from the USA’s where they are modern secondary schools], and Europe the British Grammar School equivalent Lycèe Diploma in Science or in Arts -with compulsory advanced classical academic and cultural content, became the minimum entry requirement.
In Britain and the in British Commonwealth traditionally greater importance has been attached to professionalism, in that not only academic qualifications alone do not suffice but, also, separate professional examinations may not be sat without a specific period of time of specifically professional study. Teacher training came to require higher entry qualifications than for training as, e.g., certified accountants or as a barrister-at-law [practicing lawyers as trial advocates]. Then, depending on language status, specifically professional curricula could be completed with a minimum of two or a minimum of three years of professional study followed by [additionally to in-house training in the course of professional study], e.g., six moths of pupillage for legal practice, or, e.g., a year’s probationary class-room teaching prior to full professional qualification, with an expectation also of later continuous professional development by way of, e.g., attendance at seminars –in the case of teaching with optional further study in a subject offered by the Teacher Training College.
(Until the late 20th century holders of those minimum entry qualification, by passing a selection examination, could become 'temporary teachers'. Graduates of Oxford and Cambridge universities, upon payment of a fee, could be conferred upon the title of 'master' and be placed as teachers by their syndicate. Graduates of other universities wanting to become teachers attended the two year compulsory [or longer with an additional subject] teacher training colleges, or with a Bachelor of Education degree could enter teacher training at final year level, subject to the successful completion of a probationary year in class-room teaching. This professionalism in teaching has since been required of new graduates as the Post-graduate Certificate in Education [PGCE], in England only [for teaching at state schools] with a QTS skills test, and similarly [and also in the case of Bachelor of Education graduates] the successful completion of an induction year in school teaching as Newly Qualified Teacher [NQT] –with continuing professional development. While also non-major professional qualifications has been officially categorised as a level above under-graduate university degrees [being considered to be reduced to two years] in the National Vocational Qualifications scheme, without such a degree only those qualify for the Qualified Teacher Status [QTS] who previously had been trained at a Teacher Training College in the United Kingdom or in a Colony or former Colony of it, or if elsewhere if similarly they possess examination passes at GCE or GCSE level [at grade C or above] additionally to the language requirement in Mathematics [and if to qualify to teach at a primary school also in Physics] –or their recognised equivalents [e.g., Matriculation].)
Reputable American teaching qualifications, e.g., through the Teacher Training College of the Columbia University, enjoy a similar international high regard. However, in their history of education, having less aspired to make general education as 'practical' as in the USA and in later Britain (with lessening emphasis on spirituality in India, increasing perfectionism in China and in the 21st century the UK's preference for its basis as respect for authority as in the USA), the European teaching institutions almost uniformly continue more to value academic general education for entering into professional training as school teachers, and Britain's considering, e.g., class-room assistant qualifications as good substitute to, e.g., the GCE/GCSE passes, as acceptable entry qualification was criticised.
Interest in entering the teaching profession have always been based on the status of teachers, which, traditionally, was highest in Russia in the 2nd half of the 20th century, where teachers enjoyed more favourable terms of employment than elsewhere.
In Britain's history of education, the 1980's miss-projection of the how many teachers were needed resulted in the employment of science graduates, without formal teaching qualifications, as, initially temporary, teachers. A status was enjoyed by teachers of similar regard, as in European countries, and, about the end of the 20th century, conferring knighthood upon teachers of long service was politically suggested in Britain but due to controversies on reforming the House of Lords it did not materialise. At the beginning of the 21st century, for reasons considered economic, the status of teachers was regarded to have been equated to those of classroom assistants who were socially criticised for taking classes on their own with brief training.
In the USA's history of education and teaching a form of essentialism in education has been hailed, and a culture based on practicality and model citizenry, emphasising respect for authority. With a reported lower literacy rate than, e.g., much less resourceful Turkey's, and in the 21st century, with no general minimum standard in teacher training and education, some states do not recognise the teaching qualifications of some others. Teachers and teaching appear officially to enjoy no higher regard then in Bernard Shaw's remark (by some believed to be about writers' courses) "Those who can, do; those who can not teach".
In the USA public interest in better educational standards grew and at the end of the 20th century three generals were appointed by a state to improve teaching and educational standards, and at the beginning of the 21st century was appointed to improve educational standards at federal level a serving general. Some teachers paid only term time, having to seek vacation work during summer, teaching and teachers, generally are regarded as having enjoyed not as good terms and conditions in the USA, but it has considered adopting the European baccalaureate system.
The growth of interest in culture and education in western society's history of teaching has been seen, in the European Union, mostly in Cyprus which reportedly has the highest percentage of university graduates among fellow member states.
In western society spiritual values in education have been protected by way of teaching religious studies in many schools in American secularisim [protection of religion from political influence] and by the religious affiliations of many of its universities; in European secularism [protecting against one’s formal dominance of the other], often with a state religion enshrined in the constitution, this has been partly ensured by such laws as, e.g., the requirement of Britain’s Education Acts in compulsory education to take pupils to religious worship at least once a month and, e.g., while British universities are not formally religiously affiliated, the availability of a place of worhsip and clerics to students at universities.
While various emphasis and special education considerations (e.g., the pedagogy based Steiner-Waldorf education for creating free moral and integrated individuals -by some its say by teachers and schools on defining the curricula disagreed with, or Montessori's preschool and elementary school child's self directed activities with autodidactic equipment -regarded by some as risking raising obedient automatons), be it practical skills or Emerson's 'thinking man', have all had praise and criticism and arguments continue on prgmatism and creation -v- evolution, generally Socrates's argument that the rightly trained mind would turn toward virtue continues to carry considerable weight in most educational systems. Basically an important aim of education and the societies' all time expectations continue to be on the lines of these verses (by the Cypriot 'Teacher of Teachers', the late Orhan Seyfi Ari):
'I was an ape' you say -or amphibian?
And now?! Are you not now.. 'man'!? "
In western history of teaching and the status of teachers the cultural values balance appears to have been more reflected in the education and training of teachers in Europe, mostly in Spain and Italy, and in France where without much disregard to spiritual values also political and ideological affiliations of teachers is the long established norm in professional teaching.