Dec 9, 2015
E-Learning/CALL 2451 Views
For over a century and more, education has remained unchanged in the format of teaching, the subjects taught and the curriculum followed by schools and colleges. Classrooms of students intently listening and absorbing the knowledge and wisdom put forth by a teacher or professor has been the established mode of teaching. Despite advances in technology and teaching concepts, this traditional mode has remained unchanged. The number of courses or subjects and the duration may have varied but largely the framework and the method of teaching have withstood changes that are otherwise visible in other elements. But educators have largely been incased in a kind of immunity against technological advancements until now.
However, it is evident that trends have been changing in the last decade or so and these changes, most of them brought about by technology will change end results. As technology continues to place its emphasis and impact on education, the role that education will play in the ...
A relative clause gives more information about someone or something referred to in a main clause. Some relative clauses are used to specify which person or thing we mean, or which type of person or thing we mean:
Example: The couple (who) live next to us have sixteen grandchildren. Example: Andrew stopped the police car (that) was driving past.
Notice that we don't put a comma between the noun and a defining relative clause. Relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun: a wh- word (who,which,etc.) or that. However,sometimes we omit the wh- word / that and use a zero relative pronoun:
Example: We went to a restaurant (which/ that) Jane had recommended to us.
We prefer to put a relative clause immediately after or as close as possible to the noun it adds information to:
Example: The building for sale was the house (which) had a slate roof and was by the stream. (rather than The building for sale was the house by the stream which had a slate roof.)
When we use a defining relative ...
Dec 9, 2015
Lesson Planning 3896 Views
In 1956, Princeton University cognitive psychologist George Miller published a study called "The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information." In this landmark study, Miller showed that people were only capable of holding a certain amount of information in conscious, working memory at a time. For teenagers and adults, he found this number to be no more than seven items--thus his "magic number" of seven.
Moreover, Miller found that, when someone tries to hold in mind and think about more than this short-term memory "buffer" can hold, something has to go. That is, when a person tries to add one more item into conscious memory, something else that he was holding in mind previously drops out. It's a biological constraint. We simply "max out" and are incapable of holding anything more in memory until we do something with what we already have in our minds.
The findings of this study have been replicated many times and, in fact, more recent ...
Dec 9, 2015
Teaching Methodology 4088 Views
With the No Child Left Behind legislation, teachers are being increasingly pressured to meet several standards, both at the state level and federal, as well as being accountable for the progress of their diverse student body. Many teachers don't feel comfortable teaching English Learners, and so presenting the content in a way that is efficient and effective can appear daunting.
The answer may be in integrating across content areas. According to the Utah Education Network, when we integrate content areas, instruction increases in depth and cross curricular connections to real life emerges. With English Learners, this will mean more opportunities to explore, investigate, and, scaffolded learning through the use of funds of knowledge, and motivation to demonstrate and share findings through multiple channels of production.
Short and Eschevarria (1999) recalls how teachers find the task of fitting all standards of language skills and content into each and every language lesson. They ...
Dec 15, 2015
Teacher Training 3091 Views
Across the nation it is becoming more and more difficult to recruit classroom teachers. It is not that we are lacking in young folks with special ideology for making a difference in the lives of children and adolescents, it is just that the job is exceeding tough with ever-increasing expectations plus the salary is generally quite low when compared with other professional opportunities with equal education. In addition, no matter how hard a teacher works and applies him/herself, kids are the variables - some get it; some don't; sadly, some won't. But having taught students, future teachers, and new hires for over 45 years, I can tell you that it is fun, exciting, and rewarding job, coupled with bits or worry and frustration. No other profession keeps you young through the insight of kids or on top of understanding and thinking of young minds. It is fascinating, awesome, and gratifying.
Because it is hard to find teachers in most locales, alternatives have been implemented. This ...
The pre-production phase, or silent period, is one which many beginner second-language students have had experience with. In my years teaching EFL to young learners in China and Korea, I have dealt with many students who looked completely overwhelmed by the new language. I believe the most important thing for a teacher to do is to respect this silent period as a natural phase. It is part of the development, that is the language development, that a period of input needs to be built up before a student is ready to produce, and so it is the teacher's job to provide the student with a developmentally appropriate environment while he or she works through this initial phase in language acquisition.
Keep them moving
One approach which I have found to work really well during this phase is the Total Physical Response (TPR) approach. In this approach, the teacher gives a series of commands while demonstrating (or modelling) each one; the student then demonstrates comprehension, not verbally, ...
Dec 15, 2015
Grammar 4244 Views
If a sentence has a singular subject, it is followed by a singular verb and if it has a plural subject, it is followed by a plural verb;that is, the verb agrees with the subject. Compare:
• She lives in Thailand.
• Most people live in Asian than in any other continent.
Some nouns with a singular form can be treated either as singular (with a singular verb) or (with a plural verb):
• The council has (or have)postponed a decision on the new road.
Other words like this include association, audience, class, committee, department, electorate, family, government, orchestra, population, staff, university, and the names of specific organisations such as the Bank of England, the BBC, IBM, Sony. We use a singular verb if we see the institution or organisation as a whole unit and a plural verb if we see it as a collection of individuals. Often you can use either with very little difference in meaning, although in formal writing (such as academic writing), it is more common to use a singular verb. ...
Dec 15, 2015
Other 2328 Views
The World Bank's 1991 'World Development Report' has made a very interesting observation that the scientific and technological progress and enhanced productivity in any nation have a close link with investment in human capital as well as the quality of the economic environment. Scientific and technological capabilities are, however, unevenly distributed in the world and are linked with the education system in a nation.
The 21st century has seen quite massive changes in higher education systems both in terms of complexity of the systems and also in terms of its utility for converting education into an effective tool for social and economic changes. A very interesting relationship is emerging among education, knowledge, conversion of knowledge into suitable entities from trade point of view, wealth and economy.
Internationalization of education includes the policies and practices undertaken by academic systems and institutions-and even individuals-to cope with the global academic ...
Linguistics is the scientific study of language and languages. It encompasses their nature, the function of the human mind during the formation of their words and their meanings, and their reception and resultant effects on the listener.
The definitive origin of language has thus far been elusive, although there are several theories, all of which point to its earliest use. Hand signals, for instance, emanated from thoughts and it is believed that these ultimately adopted sound, while other studies indicate that objects were given names to reflect their appearance. Still other theories postulate that primitive grunts and similar sounds, emitted during hunts and in the midst of arduous labor, evolved into distinct words.
Nevertheless, there are several linguistics sub-branches, including historical, comparative, grammatical, theoretical, neuro-, psycho-, anthropological, ethno-, socio-, computational, and stylistic.
Speech can be defined as the utterance of an individual, while writing ...