~~Context, function and form give learners the essential where, why and how of the language (or skill) being taught. A lesson needs all three to make it clear and engaging.
Context – the where and why of the language situation.
Function – the intent (or the why) of the language used, its purpose
Form – the structure of the language
When devising contexts you should consider where the language is being used, by whom and for what purpose. It should be connected to real life and to the learners. A good context clarifies meaning and function and gives learners a reason to communicate and use what is being taught.
A good context also motivates and engages learners by showing them how the language is meaningful to them and allows them to build connections with the language and where and how it can be used. Context establishes a basis for everything in the lesson and makes the lesson flow smoother.
One clear and relevant context needs to be set at the start of every class. Switching ...
Sep 16, 2017
Teaching Methodology 1092 Views
Educational practices are incredibly diverse not only around the world, but even within a given school. What some might view as the best approach to educating children, others might see as a mediocre attempt to do so.
The video "Pre-school in Three Different Cultures" illustrates this diversity in educational styles to the viewer. The documentary consists of the filming of three different pre-schools in different countries during the span of a normal day. The summaries of the day's activities given in the video for each of the pre-schools let the viewer analyze both the social and academic aspects of the children's experience throughout the day. The pre-schools included in the video are Komatsudani from Japan, Dong-feng from China, and St.Timothy from the U.S. (Hawaii). The following paper will shed light on what is known as constructivism and behaviorism, and describe which one of the schools falls under each category.
Constructivism is the theory that views children as little ...
Sep 16, 2017
Grammar 870 Views
There is obviously no shortcut to mastering anything and the same goes with English grammar. It takes a significant amount of time to understand as well as put English grammar to use. However there are obviously ways to improve your grammar and help you to speak correctly and efficiently. Some tips and tricks that you must be working on to improve your grammar are as follows.
1. Concentrate on tense
This should be on top of your list. This is because the tense can dictate your verb and can define the exact timeline or period of your action or anyone's action. Thus you need to mandatorily memorize all the verb forms. The truth here is that we do not always use all tenses while speaking English. Thus try interacting with good and efficient English speakers to improve your own English.
2. Common pronouns
Concentrate on pronouns. A pronoun when used incorrectly can make your entire sentence incorrect. Thus any pronoun in particular should be used in the correct place in order to be ...
Sep 4, 2017
Teaching 876 Views
~~There are two ways to view reading in the younger learner classroom: learning to read and reading to learn.
Reading to learn involves target language and structures, which form part of the curriculum: for example the dialogue page of a textbook or unscrambling words or sentences. These activities are developing the learners awareness of language form, word order and, where supported by visual materials, context and usage. Reading to learn requires exposure to the target language before the reading activity can take place and so these activities are supported by input, drilling and often listening activities.
Learning to read involves recognition of letter and word shapes (looking at whole words and whole sentences), phonics (relating sounds to individual letters and blends and clusters of letters), and morphemes (e.g. adding ‘ing’ or ‘ed’ to a verb to change the meaning – listen – listening – listened).
Very often learning to read and reading to learn are combined. Learners are ...
‘Always do a warmer’ is a standard part of the EFL mantra, but why should we do them and what type of activity should they be?
The rationale for doing a warmer:
* The ice breaker. Often recommended with new students and classes but it actually applies to all students. People will communicate more easily if they feel familiar and comfortable with the person they are talking to. For new classes, warmers provide the chance to get to know their new classmates, to find something out about them. For existing classes, students often have no contact with each other outside of class so they will still feel a little awkward when suddenly forced back together in the lesson. Warmers give a chance for people to get to know the other people they will be communicating with.
* Lowering the affective filter. The affective filter refers to the mental barrier that we often put up which can often block or slow down the learning process. If we are happy and relaxed then we are more receptive to learning, ...
Sep 3, 2017
Teacher Training 765 Views
The A.C.T. Strategy
Part 1 of 3
Prison. Juvenile detention centers. The mean streets of the city. All of these things and more are possibilities for kids these days. I know, because I've been there myself. One simple, stupid mistake made when I was a teenager led to four hard years in a correctional facility, and during that time I spent nearly every day feeling like I had completely destroyed my chances of having a life. It's a harsh, empty feeling and one that nobody should have to go through.
I turned my life around, however. It wasn't easy - it never is - but I was finally released from prison after what felt like an eternity. The first months after getting out were rough. Jail doesn't exactly prepare a young person for a role as a model citizen, after all. But today I've moved into a management position at a highly successful company and spend much of my free time as a youth mentor and professional speaker, trying to help at-risk kids avoid the same mistakes I made and start ...
Sep 3, 2017
Teaching Methodology 512 Views
One of the Herculean but mouth-watering duties of an instructor is assuming the role of a counselor. Despite the fact that an instructor's primary goal is to impart academic knowledge in the field of content delivery, s/he has a secondary and an all-important task of shaping the moral behavior of students. Thus, an instructor's role is holistic centering on the total development of the learner. This explains why instructors are normally painted with the phrase 'shapers of future leaders'. Metaphorically, students are like a herd of cattle while teachers are herdsmen. As fragile, senseless, and immature like cows, students need occasional and sometimes frequent coaching from the most skillful and experienced tutors. If their paths are not directed, they can end up in deep pits that can even thwart their academic goals.
True, instructors are saddled with a lot of responsibilities in various educational institutions making time very scarce for them. However, they must urgently take up ...
ELT Foundation Activities in Google Maps: A Contemporary Content-Based Language Teaching
"The essence of strategy is that you must set limits on what you're trying to accomplish."
A popular means of integrating instructions is the engagement of themes and content- based instructions. The overlying objective of this instruction is to promote students' academic awareness and skills while they prepare and learn the intended language targets employed in the activities. Teachers dealing with second language learners must be specific in the conduct of these three lesson-planning components to attain output/s within a given time frame. The first is vocabulary contents which needs systematic activities for easy comprehension since second language learners often lack the basic and specialized vocabulary used in the academic passages. The second is prioritizing materials for the teacher to decide the key concept that should receive most attention since it is not always ...
Sep 1, 2017
Teacher Training 668 Views
Training v Development
Teacher Training is not the same as Teacher development.
Devised by academic management
Pre-determined training course structure
Addresses ‘global’ teaching issues*
Input from “experts”
Unthinking acceptance of knowledge
Teaching seen from ‘outside in’
Stresses professional skill
Initiated by “self”
Development through reflective process
Addresses ‘local’ teaching issues*
Input from “participants”
Personal construction of knowledge
Teaching seen from ‘inside out
Stresses personal development
* Note Global issues refer to teaching in general while ‘local’ issues refer to a teacher’s individual situation.
Teacher training is a good means of introducing new ideas and techniques but Teacher Development should really start with the teacher reflecting on what they do in class.
Development comprises two distinct features – awareness and direction; that is, awareness of where you are or what you ...
Aug 26, 2017
Career Development 718 Views
Over almost fifty years in the classroom, I found I needed to find ways to reduce stress. Stress became greater as I accepted more responsibility in the second half of my career as a head of a large Mathematics department. During this time, the school grew and there were significant changes in the Mathematics syllabi and in the teaching of Mathematics.
I found that my time was not mine anymore with students, parents, teachers and the school administration wanting my time. Below is how I chose to meet stress head on.
The first thing I realised was that I had always to be available for consultation for thirty minutes before and after school so that teachers, students, parents and the administration could see me. This left me no recourse but to use the time before and after these periods for my planning, setting and the marking of assessment. (In normal term time, I was always reluctant to take work home. Only at exam marking time would I do that so that I finished my marking quickly to ...