1. Introduction: Input versus Output. A general overview
In order to assess how compatible Krashen's and Swain's views are, it is essential to first outline the basics of each view, that is, the main tenets of their hypotheses.
As part of his Monitor Model, Krashen (1981,1982, 1985) formulated the Input Hypothesis, which claims that language input (listening and reading comprehension) constitutes the main communicative process through which we acquire a second language. Krashen believes that fluency in speaking or writing in a second language will naturally come about after learners have built up sufficient competence through comprehending input. However, it is not just any kind of input that is appropriate or effective, or as Krashen puts it, not all input will produce intake. The term "intake" is closely linked to how affective factors affect second language acquisition (SLA from now on), and this is how this author refers to the amount of input that is effectively assimilated by ...
Aug 27, 2016
Teaching Methodology 103 Views
Different educational institutes have different ways of teaching. Some of these are teacher-centric while the others are student-oriented. There is a constant debate on which of these is the best teaching methodology.
A quick scan and understanding will help us understand:
Teacher-Centric Teaching Methodology
As the name suggests, this methodology mainly revolves around the teacher. The attention is completely on the teacher who teaches by giving lectures and demonstrations either using a blackboard or a technological tool. The students are passive in this scenario and are usually the listeners. They play little or no role in the entire process. They take in information quietly as the teacher teaches.
Student-Oriented Teaching Methodology
This teaching methodology has a wider acceptance because students are no longer the passive listeners. They are active and play an equal role in the entire teaching and learning process. This means that there are practical lessons involved in which ...
Aug 27, 2016
Grammar 63 Views
In formal styles, we often put a preposition before the relative pronouns which and whom: Example: The rate (at which) a material heats up depends on its chemical composition. Example: In the novel by Peters, (on which) the film is based, the main character is a teenager. Example: An actor (with whom) Gels on had previously worked contacted him about the role. Example: Her many friends, (among whom) I like to be considered, gave her encouragement.
Notice that after a preposition you can't use 'who' instead of 'whom', and you can't use 'that' or 'zero relative pronoun': Example: Is it right that politicians should make important decisions without consulting the public to (whom) they are accountable? (not... the public to who they are accountable.) Example: The valley (in which) the town lies is heavily polluted (not The valley in that the town... )
In informal English, we usually put the preposition later in the relative clause rather than at the beginning: Example: The office (which) ...
Aug 27, 2016
Grammar 28 Views
We always use a relative clause beginning with whose + noun, particularly in written English, when we talk about something belonging to or associated with a person. Compare: Example(1): Stevenson is an architect. Her designs have won international praise. Example(1): Stevenson is an architect (whose) designs have won international praise. Example(2): Dr Rowan has had to do all his own typing. His secretary resigned two weeks ago. Example(2): Dr Rowan, (whose) secretary resigned two weeks ago, has had to all his own typing.
We can use 'whose' in both defining and non defining relative clauses. We sometimes use 'whose' when we are talking about things, in particular when we are talking about towns or countries, and organizations: Example: The film was made in Botswana, (whose) wildlife parks are larger than those in Kenya. Example: We need to learn from companies (whose) trading is more healthy than our own. Example: The newspaper is owned by the Mearson Group, (whose) chairman is Sir ...
Aug 27, 2016
E-Learning/CALL 29 Views
The crucial role of K12 content development services
American scholar in history and winner of numerous awards including Pulitzer Prize, Jill Lepore, rightly opined: In kindergarten, you can learn how to be a citizen of the world. Indeed, in the present era governed by the ICT (information and communication technology) wherein computer literacy is the medium to learn the basic three 'R's - reading, writing and arithmetic, the K12 content development services play the most crucial and decisive role. In varied formats, the providers of these services cater to the respective needs as per the age group and relevant syllabi. All these are enabled through interactive e-books and apps.
E-learning has enriched the process of imparting a lesson on a highly interesting note
The students, right from the tiny tots at the kindergarten level to the teen-aged youngsters in the 12th standard of high schools, have got immense liking for this mode of learning. On their part, the providers of content in ...